The sea covers just over a half of the total territory of the Republic of Croatia, extending along the 6,278-km-long coastline, and encompassing 1,244 islands, islets and reefs. The commercial fishing fleet comprises around 6,600 active vessels with a fishing license, with an average annual catch of around 70,000 tonnes. Fishing for small oily fish, predominantly for sardines (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy, (Engraulis encrasicolus), is the most important aspect of fishery in the Republic of Croatia.
of fruits and
The majority of vegetable production takes place in continental Croatia, while fruit, especially citrus fruit, predominates in the coastal region. Average intensive fruit farming in 2016-2018 amounted to 142,713 tonnes over an area of 31,458 hectares. By the size of farming area, the most common fruit species in 2018 were nuts, hazelnuts, apples, plums, cherries and tangerines. By the size of farming area, the most common vegetable species in 2018 were cabbage, onions and garlic, peppers and watermelon.
Winemaking is characterized by the diversity of varietals and an array of authentic wine varieties. According to the natural conditions for vine cultivation, there are four distinct vine-growing regions: Slavonia and the Croatian Danube Region, Croatian Istria and Kvarner, Dalmatia and Central Croatia, with a total of 12 sub-regions. Around 250 grape varieties are grown, the most common being: Graševina, Malvazija Istarska and Plavac mali crni, with a total share of around 40%. Wine production ranges from 0.7 to 1.4 million hectoliters, and quality and top quality wines make up about 70% of total wine production in Croatia.
The history of olive-growing goes back more than two thousand years and the quality of olive oils from Croatian territories has been widely recognized since Roman times. Olive groves today cover an area that amounts to around 18,697 hectares, which makes for 1.26% of the total agricultural area. Oil production varies from year to year, depending on climatic and other factors, and ranges from 35,000 to 50,000 hectoliters. Croatia currently has five olive oils with protected designations of origin registered on the level of the European Union.
The culture of
Crop production is one of the most important branches of agriculture in terms of the use of land and production of food for humans and animals. More than a half of the utilized agricultural areas consists of plowlands and gardens. The production of cereals represents the most significant part of the overall structure of crop production in Croatia. In the period from 2016 to 2018, cereals were cultivated on an area of 484 thousand hectares on average, with an average yield of 3.1 million tonnes. Corn was the dominant crop, with 51 percent of the sown areas, followed by wheat, with 29 percent of the sown areas.
The culture of
Livestock farming plays has an important role in Croatia’s agricultural activities, with a share of approximately 35 percent of the total value of agricultural production. The major parts of the structure of livestock farming are cattle, pig, poultry, sheep and goat farming, while the importance of apiculture has also increased over the recent years. Cattle farming is the most significant branch of livestock farming and includes as many as three autochthonous Croatian bovine cattle breeds. Over the last three years, the total number of sheep and goats has increased, along with the number of breeding sheep and goats and sheep and goat farmers, while the export of live pigs is also on the rise.
The culture of autochthonous
and protected breeds
The Buša, the Istrian cattle Boškarin and the Slavonian-Syrmian Podolian cattle are autochthonous Croatian cattle breeds and represent a rich genetic heritage, which is gradually accumulating due to the implemented agrarian policy measures and organized realization of breeding programs. Croatian autochthonous and protected breeds are also the Black Slavonian pig, which had the highest number of breeding sows in 2018 – as many as 2,262, the Turopolje pig and the Banija spotted pig, whose populations are stable, with a tendency towards increase. Croatia also has two protected autochthonous poultry breeds, the Zagorje turkey and the Hrvatica hen.
In Croatia, forests are especially protected. They are 95% natural, have great biodiversity and cover nearly 49% of the land surface of the country. The most common tree species are beech, common oak and sessile oak. The total timber stock of the forests is 419 million m3, of which 84 million m3 is held by private forest owners and the annual timber stock increment is approximately 10 million m3. In addition, 313 state and 769 county hunting grounds have been established, covering a total area of approximately 5.4 million ha and characterized by a great variety of wildlife.